What Is Financing?

Financing is the process of providing funds for business activities, making purchases,聽or investing. Financial institutions, such as banks, are in the business of providing capital to businesses, consumers,聽and investors to help them achieve their goals. The use of financing is vital in any economic system, as it allows companies to purchase products out of their immediate reach.

Put differently, financing is a way to leverage the time value of money (TVM) to put future expected money flows to use for projects started today. Financing also takes advantage of the fact that some individuals in an economy will have a surplus of money that they wish to put to work to generate returns, while others demand money to undertake investment (also with the hope of generating returns), creating a market for money.

Key Takeaways

  • Financing is the process of funding business activities, making purchases, or investments.
  • There are two types of financing: equity financing and debt financing.
  • The main advantage of equity financing is that there is no obligation to repay the money acquired through it.
  • Equity financing places no additional financial burden on the company, though the downside is quite large.
  • Debt financing tends to be cheaper and comes with tax breaks. However, large debt burdens can lead to default and credit risk.
  • The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) gives a clear picture of a firm's total cost of financing.

Understanding Financing

There are two main types of financing available for companies: debt financing and equity financing. Debt is a loan that must be paid back often with interest, but it is typically cheaper than raising capital because of聽tax deduction considerations. Equity does not need to be paid back, but it relinquishes ownership stakes to the shareholder. Both debt and equity have their advantages and disadvantages. Most companies use a combination of both to finance operations.

Types of Financing

Equity Financing

"Equity" is another word for ownership in a company. For example, the owner of a grocery store chain needs to grow operations. Instead of debt, the owner would like to sell a 10% stake in the company for $100,000, valuing the firm at $1 million. Companies like to sell equity because the investor bears all the risk; if the business fails, the investor gets nothing.

At the same time, giving up equity is giving up some control. Equity investors want to have a say in how the company is operated, especially in difficult times, and are often entitled to votes based on the number of shares held. So, in exchange for ownership, an investor gives his money to a company and receives some claim on future earnings.

Some investors are happy with growth in the form of share price appreciation; they want the share price to go up. Other investors are looking for principal protection and income in the form of regular dividends.

Advantages of Equity Financing

Funding your business through investors has several advantages, including the following:

  • The biggest advantage is that you do not have to pay back the money. If your business enters聽bankruptcy, your investor or investors are not聽creditors. They are part-owners in your company, and because of that, their money is lost along with your company.
  • You do not have to make monthly payments, so there is often more cash on hand for聽operating expenses.
  • Investors understand that it takes time to build a business. You will get the money you need without the pressure of having to see your product or business thriving within a short amount of time.

Disadvantages of Equity Financing

Similarly, there are a number of disadvantages that come with equity financing, including the following:

  • How do you feel about having a new partner? When you raise聽equity financing, it involves giving up ownership of a portion of your company. The riskier the investment, the more of a stake the investor will want. You might have to give up 50%聽or more of your company, and unless you later construct a deal to buy the investor's stake, that partner will take 50%聽of your profits indefinitely.
  • You will also have to consult with your investors before making decisions. Your company is no longer solely yours, and if the investor has more than 50%聽of your company, you have a boss to whom you have to answer.

Debt Financing

Most people are familiar with debt as a form of financing because they have car loans or聽mortgages. Debt is also a common form of financing for new businesses. Debt financing must be repaid, and lenders want to be paid a rate of interest in exchange for the use of their money.

Some lenders require collateral. For example, assume the owner of the grocery store also decides that they need a new truck and must take out a loan for $40,000. The truck can serve as collateral against the loan, and the grocery store owner agrees to pay 8% interest to the lender until the loan is paid off in five years.

Debt is easier to obtain for small amounts of cash needed for specific assets, especially if the asset can be used as collateral. While debt must be paid back even in difficult times, the company retains ownership and control over business operations.

Advantages of Debt Financing

There are several advantages to financing your business through debt:

  • The lending institution has no control over how you run your company, and it has no ownership.
  • Once you pay back the loan, your relationship with the lender ends. That is especially important as your business becomes more valuable.
  • The interest you pay on debt financing is聽tax deductible聽as a business expense.
  • The monthly payment, as well as the breakdown of the payments, is a known expense that can be accurately included in your forecasting models.

Disadvantages of Debt Financing

Debt financing for your business does come with some downsides:

  • Adding a debt payment to your monthly expenses assumes that you will always have the capital inflow to meet all聽business expenses, including the debt payment. For small or early-stage companies, that is often far from certain.
  • Small business lending can be slowed substantially during recessions. In tougher times for the economy, it's more difficult to receive debt financing unless you are overwhelmingly qualified.

Special Considerations

The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is the average of the costs of all types of financing, each of which is weighted by its proportionate use in a given situation. By taking a weighted average in this way, one can determine how much interest a company owes for each dollar it finances. Firms will decide the appropriate mix of debt and equity financing by optimizing the WACC of each type of capital while taking into account the risk of default or bankruptcy on one side and the amount of ownership owners are willing to give up on the other.

Because interest on the debt is typically tax deductible, and because the interest rates associated with debt is typically cheaper than the rate of return expected for equity, debt is usually preferred. However, as more debt is accumulated, the credit risk associated with that debt also increases and so equity must be added to the mix. Investors also often demand equity stakes in order to capture future profitability and growth that debt instruments do not provide.

WACC is computed by the formula:

WACC=(EV)rE(DV)rD(1TC)where:rE=Cost聽of聽equityrD=Cost聽of聽debtE=Market聽value聽of聽the聽firm鈥檚聽equityD=Market聽value聽of聽the聽firm鈥檚聽debtV=(E+D)E/V=Percentage聽of聽financing聽that聽is聽equityD/V=Percentage聽of聽financing聽that聽is聽debtTc=Corporate聽tax聽rate\begin{aligned} &\text{WACC} = \left ( \frac { \text{E} }{ \text{V} } \right ) \times r_E \times \left ( \frac { D }{ V } \right ) \times r_D - ( 1 - T_C ) \\ &\textbf{where:}\\ &r_E = \text{Cost of equity} \\ &r_D = \text{Cost of debt} \\ &E = \text{Market value of the firm's equity} \\ &D = \text{Market value of the firm's debt} \\ &V = ( E + D ) \\ &E/V = \text{Percentage of financing that is equity} \\ &D/V = \text{Percentage of financing that is debt} \\ &T_c = \text{Corporate tax rate} \\ \end{aligned}WACC=(VE)rE(VD)rD(1TC)where:rE=Cost聽of聽equityrD=Cost聽of聽debtE=Market聽value聽of聽the聽firm鈥檚聽equityD=Market聽value聽of聽the聽firm鈥檚聽debtV=(E+D)E/V=Percentage聽of聽financing聽that聽is聽equityD/V=Percentage聽of聽financing聽that聽is聽debtTc=Corporate聽tax聽rate

Example of Financing

Provided a company is expected to perform well, you can usually obtain debt financing at a lower effective cost. For example, if you run a small business and need $40,000 of financing, you can either take out a $40,000 bank loan at a 10%聽interest rate, or you can sell a 25%聽stake in your business to your neighbor for $40,000.

Suppose your business earns a $20,000 profit聽during the next year. If you took the bank loan, your interest expense (cost of debt financing) would be $4,000, leaving you with $16,000 in profit.

Conversely, had you used equity financing, you would have zero debt (and as a result,聽no interest expense), but would keep only 75%聽of your profit (the other 25%聽being owned by your neighbor). Therefore, your personal profit would only be $15,000, or (75% x $20,000).